Crucifixion Week and the Harmony of the Gospels
- Section III Paras 21-22
Paragraphs 21 through 22
TEACHINGS THAT CLAIM THE LAST SUPPER WAS THE PASSOVER FEAST ARE BLASPHEMOUS
21.a. Any teaching that claims the Last Supper was a Passover Feast is blaspheming Christ three times over. The first blasphemy is that Christ Yahoshua is being accused of eating leavened bread at the Passover Feast. Therefore He is being accused of breaking Torah, He is being accused of being a sinner. Leavened bread was eaten at the Last Supper. It is unlawful for leavened bread to be eaten at the Passover Feast.
21.b. The Law requires that the Passover Feast be eaten with unleavened bread. The Last Supper was eaten with leavened bread. When the word bread is used in the gospel accounts regarding the Last Supper, the bread is identified in the Greek Textus Receptus as artos.
Thayer's lexicon identifies the Greek word artos as bread, and it identifies the Greek word azumos as unleavened bread.
Strong's concordance identifies artos as leavened bread and azumos as unleavened bread.
Liddell and Scott's Greek-English lexicon (with well over 2000 pages) identifies artos as regular bread. Liddel and Scott identify azumos as unleavened bread.
Sophocles' Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (an 1188 page lexicon) identifies artos as regular bread, but it has a second meaning apart from bread: The meaning of artos is raised even when it is not used in conjunction with bread. Sophocles identified azumos as unleavened bread.
The Peshitta Aramaic New Testament identifies "lakhma" (as used in the Last Supper) as leavened bread.
Even Wikipedia identifies artos as leavened bread used by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches.
In spite of this avalanche of evidence some will be scholastically dishonest and try to tell you that artos (which means raised - you know, the rising caused by yeast, which is leaven) can mean unleavened bread. In the face of such monstrous ignorance one must realize that it is not so much ignorance, rather a hidden agenda designed to oppose the Living God. Titus 1:10-16 KJV, “10 For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision: 11 Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake. 12 One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, the Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. 13 This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith; 14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth. 15 Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled. 16 They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.” The Hebrew Roots Movement is the modern day example of these verses.
Yahoshua would not have broken the Law and eaten leavened bread at a Passover Feast. But, He did eat leavened bread at the Last Supper. Because, the Last Supper was not a Passover Feast. One cannot have a Passover Feast on any day except Friday Abib 14, except for Little Passover the following month which also occurs on a Friday. Numbers 9:11 KJV, "The fourteenth day of the second month at even they shall keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs."
21.c. In the Works of Josephus, 12th printing of August 1996, page 749, "The Wars of the Jews", book 6, chapter 9, section 3 (6.9.3), it states: "So these high priests, upon the coming of their feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh…". The beginning of the ninth hour is 2 PM, between the evenings. (In Hebrew society, at that time, the counting of the hours began at sunrise, because that is when a day began). The first even is noon (the beginning of the 7th hour) and the second even is sundown (the end of the 12th hour), and between the evenings is from 12 PM to 6 PM. Midway between the evenings is the beginning of the tenth hour or 3 PM, the midpoint between 12 PM (noon) and 6 PM (approximate time of sundown).
21.d. Even though the Works of Josephus is an extra-biblical source it does contain important historical information. Josephus identifies that the sacrifice of the Passover Lamb occurs between, in our modern time frames, 2 PM and 4 PM. Between the evenings is a phrase used eleven times in two translations (TIB and YLT) as shown in the Masoretic Text. Nine of these eleven times it is referring to the sacrifice of an animal. Five of these nine times it is directly referring to the Passover sacrifice. Once again, this reinforces the definition of "between the evenings" to mean after the noontime even and prior to the sundown even. There are eleven verses in Young's Literal Translation and Jay P. Green's Interlinear Bible (the Masoretic Text) which use the term "between the evenings". These verses are listed here: Exodus 12:6; 16:12; 29:39,41; 30:8; Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 9:3,5,11; 28:4,8. You can find these eleven verses by going to BibleGateway.com and searching for "between the evenings" using Young's Literal Translation. You can also look for this phrase if you have a copy of Young's Analytical Concordance. You can also look up the Scripture references I have given here if you have a copy of The Interlinear Bible by Jay P. Green, Sr.
21.e. The second blasphemy is that Christ is being accused of not having the Passover Lamb sacrificed on the correct day; therefore He is accused of breaking Torah and being a sinner. The Passover sacrifice can only occur on Friday Abib 14, and then the Passover Feast occurs after sundown. We know from John 18:28 above, that the Pharisees had not eaten the Passover Feast on the day after the Last Supper. Therefore, Passover was in their future and it definitely was in the future at the time the Last Supper was eaten. John 18:28 KJV "Then led they [Yahoshua] from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.”
The law required the Passover sacrifice to be kept on the fourteenth of the first month of Abib (aka Nisan) between the evenings - prior to sundown. Leviticus 23:1-2 KJV, “1 And [Yahowah] spake unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of [Yahowah], which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.” Leviticus 23:4-5 TIB, "4 These are appointed seasons of [Yahowah], holy gatherings which you shall proclaim in their appointed season: 5 In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, between the evenings, is the Passover to [Yahowah]." Yahoshua did not change the appointed time for the Passover sacrifice of the substitutionary lamb or the feasting on the meat of this lamb, because He obeyed the law of Yahowah in every point.
21.f. The third blasphemy is that Christ is being accused of not having the Passover Lamb sacrificed at the designated spot; i.e., the Temple. Therefore, He is accused of breaking Torah and being a sinner. This Scripture was mentioned previously in this treatise. Deuteronomy 16:5-6 KJV, "5 Thou mayest not sacrifice the passover within any of thy gates, which [Yahowah] thy God giveth thee: 6 But at the place which [Yahowah] thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt.” Within any of thy gates means without your own yard or property. It must take place at the Temple, the place which God chose to place His name.
22.a. For centuries the cry of desperate scholars, clergymen, and layman alike has been "the gospels contradict one another, there is no harmony, we must find an extra-biblical source to explain what the gospel writers meant." Forgotten is the knowledge that the gospel writers are not to blame. It is God Who wrote the Bible: 2 Timothy 3:16 KJV, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:”. Puny men can be of no help, God does not need any help, He wrote what He meant and He means what He wrote.
22.b. But those who look for extra-biblical sources of explanation are more honest than those who claim that they have the answers from Scripture, that the gospels agree, but still claim that the Last Supper was the Passover Feast. The Bible does not teach this.
22.c. Unfortunately, men do not listen and read and discern. And because they do not seek Him for their answers, because they do not believe, He plainly says in Matthew 13:13 KJV, "Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand."
22.d. Why have scholars throughout the centuries been unable to determine the events of crucifixion week? Because they approach the Holy Scriptures with a cavalier attitude; because they did not respect the Scriptures as the Word of God; because in their constant textual criticism they have lost faith in the Scriptures; and because they do not believe the Scriptures. There is one additional reason. Fallen men are frequently those who attempt to understand what God has written. These men do not have the Holy Ghost, nor do they consult with Him. It is little wonder why they cannot arrive at the proper answer. God explains His ways again in Isaiah 44:25 KJV, "That frustrateth the tokens of the liars, and maketh diviners mad; that turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledge foolish;”.
22.e. Romans 3:4 KJV, "God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged." Those who have accused the Holy Ghost of lying by saying that the gospels are not in agreement, must retreat to the stake of Calvary and repent for calling God a liar. God does not lie, he conceals. Proverbs 25:2 KJV, "It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honour of kings is to search out a matter." And who is the king that can search out a matter? Born-again Christians who believe in Yahoshua the Christ. Revelation 5:10 KJV, "And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth." In the eyes of God, I am a king and a priest. In the eyes of fallen men, I am foolish and unlearned.
22.f. 1 Corinthians 1:25-29 KJV, "25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men. 26 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called: 27 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty; 28 And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are: 29 That no flesh should glory in his presence." God will use the small, even insignificant, even loathsome things of this world to shame the wise.
22.g. At this point you must know the God we are talking about. He does not lie, nor would He break the Law as He walked the earth as a man. To pose that he changed the Passover from Abib 14 to an earlier day during crucifixion week, for the purpose of making the Last Supper the Passover Feast is to accuse Him of breaking the law. Why does the Last Supper have to be the Passover Feast? There is no requirement in the Scriptures for this to be so. In fact, it is not so. The Scriptures teach that the Last Supper was not the Passover Feast. To claim otherwise is to accuse Yahoshua of being a sinner. Also, this is to accuse the Holy Ghost, Who penned the Scriptures, of making Yahoshua into a law breaker. One should not trifle with God, nor be cavalier about what one says about Him. Yahoshua would not and did not break the law in any point, nor did the Holy Ghost set Him up to be a liar. 2 Corinthians 5:21 KJV, "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him." 1 Peter 1:19 KJV, "But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:”. 1 Peter 2:22 KJV, "Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:”.
22.h. Would the God of the Universe be guilty of breaking the whole law? James 2:10 KJV, "For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all." The law required the Passover to be kept on the fourteenth of the first month of Abib (aka Nisan). Leviticus 23:4-5 TIB, "4 These are appointed seasons of [Yahowah], holy gatherings which you shall proclaim in their appointed season: 5 In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, between the evenings, is the Passover to [Yahowah]." The conclusion of this matter is that Yahoshua did not change the appointed time for the Passover sacrifice of the substitutionary lamb or the feasting on the meat of this lamb, because He obeyed the law of Yahowah in every point.